1. Sans-serif fonts are usually more legible than fonts with serifs.
2. Avoid using a font that has characters that are too similar to one another, as this will reduce the legibility of the print.
3. Avoid using dot matrix print for critical flight-deck documentation.
4. Long chunks of text should be set in lower case.
5. If upper case is required, the first letter of the word should be made larger in order to enhance the legibility of the word.
6. When specifying font height, or accessing graphs to determine the size of a lower-case character, the distinction between “x” height and overall size should be made.
7. As a general recommendation, the “x” height of a font used for important flight-deck documentation should not be below 0.10 inch.
8. The recommended height-to-width ratio of a font that is viewed in front of the observer is 5:3.
9. The vertical spacing between lines should not be smaller than 25-33% of the overall size of the font.
10. The horizontal spacing between characters should be 25% of the overall size and not less than one stroke width.
11. Avoid using long strings of text set in italics.
12. Use primarily one or two typefaces for emphasis.
13. Use black characters over a white background for most cockpit documentation.
14. Avoid using white characters over a black background in normal line operations. However, if this is desired:
1. Use minimum amount of text.
2. Use relatively large typesize.
3. Use sans-serif to minimize the loss of legibility.
15. Black over white or yellow are recommended for cockpit documentation.
16. Avoid using black over dark red, green, and blue.
17. Use anti-glare plastic to laminate documents.
18. Ensure that the quality of the print and the paper is well above normal standards. Poor quality of the print will effect legibility and readability.
19. The designer must assess the age groups of the pilots that will be using the documentation, and take a very conservative approach in assessing information obtained from graphs and data books.
At PopTech 2013 Cognitive psychologist Scott Barry Kaufman unravels some of creativity’s mysterious origins with the help of brain scanning equipment. “Depending on what you are creating — the stimulus, the content — and what stage of the creative process you are in, different brain areas are recruited to help solve the task.”
Bill Gates describes himself as a technocrat. But he does not believe that technology will save the world. Or, to be more precise, he does not believe it can solve a tangle of entrenched and interrelated problems that afflict humanity’s most vulnerable: the spread of diseases in the developing world and the poverty, lack of opportunity and despair they engender. “I certainly love the IT thing,” he says. “But when we want to improve lives, you’ve got to deal with more basic things like child survival, child nutrition.”
The infinitely curious, brilliant, and kind Adam Savage gave the closing benediction at Boing Boing: Ingenuity theatrical experience at a former Masonic Lodge in San Francisco on August 18. The co-host of Mythbusters, co-founder of Tested, and Boing Boing contributor inspired us with his personal story of becoming a maker and outlined ten ground rules for success.
Mammalian hearing developed primarily as an animal-detector system — and it was crucial to hear every rustle from afar. The evolved ear is an extraordinary amplifier. By the time the brain registers a sound, our auditory mechanism has jacked the volume several hundredfold from the level at which the sound wave first started washing around the loopy whirls of our ears. This is why, in a reasonably quiet room, we actually can hear a pin drop. Think what a tiny quantity of sound energy is released by a needle striking a floor! Our ancestors needed such hypersensitivity, because every standout noise signified a potential threat.
There has been a transformation in our relationship to the environment over the millions of years since the prototype for human hearing evolved, but part of our brain hasn’t registered the makeover.
Every time a siren shrieks on the street, our conscious minds might ignore it, but other brain regions behave as if that siren were a predator barreling straight for us. Given how many sirens city dwellers are subject to over the course of an average day, and the attention-fracturing tension induced by loud sounds of every sort, it’s easy to see how sensitivity to noise, once an early warning system for approaching threats, has become a threat in itself.