Why We Love Repetition In Music

How many times does the chorus repeat in your favorite song? How many times have you listened to that chorus? Repetition in music isn’t just a feature of Western pop songs, either; it’s a global phenomenon. Why? Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis walks us through the basic principles of the ‘exposure effect,’ detailing how repetition invites us into music as active participants, rather than passive listeners. 

Lesson by Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis, animation by Andrew Zimbelman for The Foreign Correspondents' Club.

The Week's Links: September 12, 2014


  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophyhttp://owl.li/Bc8OE
  • How to Make Hyperlapse Videos that Totally Wow! | Photojojo http://owl.li/Bcfe6
  • Please Invent This: Chefs And Food Writers On Kitchen Tools They Wish They Hadhttp://owl.li/BcfuW
  • Bookshelf Porn: So many books, so little time.http://owl.li/Bc95w
  • Prop Stylists: The Unsung Heroes Of Food Photography http://owl.li/Bcfyo
  • How a 19th Century Math Genius Taught Us the Best Way to Hold a Pizza Sliceowl.li/BbSCo
  • How Everything We Tell Ourselves About How Busy We Are Is A Lie owl.li/BbsAU
  • Ken Burns's new TV documentary on the Roosevelts has the epic scale of Tolstoyowl.li/BbSoI
  • ◉ Leonardo Da Vinci's "Viola Organista" is heard for the first time, after 500 yearsowl.li/BbqVu
  • The Internet Probably Isn’t Ruining Your Teenager’s Brain owl.li/Bbsxj
  • The Hamburger Menu-Icon Debateowl.li/BbRPD
  • The Creativity Top 5 - Advertising Ageowl.li/BnBMH
  • Sleep-Deprived People Have Shrinking Brainsowl.li/BbsvP
  • Google Ventures’ 6-step design process: How we revamped our entire product in less than a week owl.li/BbR8Q
  • Who Should Decide What High School Kids Are Allowed to Read? owl.li/BbR67
  • An Open Internet Is Essential to a Free Internet: Why Net Neutrality Should Matter To Everyone | Electronic Frontier Foundation...
  • Why Twitter Should Not Algorithmically Curate the Timeline owl.li/Bbsv3
  • ▶ RSA Shorts - The Power of Empathyowl.li/Bbsml
  • Jeffrey Zeldman: 20 years of Web Design and Community owl.li/Bbs31
  • Photographer Thomas Herbrich Took 100,000 Smoke Plume Photos Looking for Unexpected Shapes owl.li/BbskA
  • ◉ Merlin Mann's Advice For People That Want To Make Things Happen owl.li/BbqSU
  • Isabel Allende: How to live passionately—no matter your age owl.li/BbrIr
  • The Data Genius Behind BuzzFeed's Successowl.li/Bbsip
  • ◉ Who Made The Cocktail Shaker? -smartercreativity.com/blog/2014/9/7/…
  • Famous Designers Destroy Moleskine Notebooks In The Most Awesome Way Possible owl.li/Bbrn5
  • Twitter CFO says a Facebook-style filtered feed is coming, whether you like it or notowl.li/BbsgK
  • It's not your computer being slow, it's Internet Slowdown Day: Your Favorite Sites Will 'Slow Down' Today, For Net Neutrality...
  • Stanley Kubrick-Inspired Visual Art owl.li/Bbs5a
  • 10 Simple Postures That Boost Performance — PsyBlog owl.li/Bbq17
  • 50 Free Film Noir Movies owl.li/Bblxy
  • Fabiano Caruana Is Doing The Impossible At Chess’s Most Competitive Tournamentowl.li/B99OZ
  • How to Get Students to Work Harderowl.li/Bblvv
  • ◉ Unravelling Some of Creativity’s Mysterious Origins With The Help of Brain Scanning Equipment owl.li/BbqQJ
  • White House names Google’s Megan Smith the next Chief Technology Officer of the United States - The Washington Post owl.li/B6g4p
  • Do High-School Students With Jobs Make More Money Later in Life? owl.li/Bblv1
  • Oh, no: BERG is shutting down :( owl.li/Bi0V9
  • Book News: Booker Prize Shortlist Includes Two Americans owl.li/BhYVz
  • ◉ Creativity Creep -smartercreativity.com/blog/2014/9/7/…
  • Taking Note: Communities Where NEA Grant Projects Occur | NEA owl.li/B6bnf
  • Google for Education Blog Aims to Help Teachers With Technology owl.li/BbltQ
  • New "Dreadnought" Dinosaur Most Complete Specimen of a Giant - Scientific Americanowl.li/B99Wv
  • Ray Bradbury on the Possibility of Science Fiction owl.li/Bbq3O
  • Corruption, wealth and beauty: The history of the Venetian gondola - Laura Morelli | TED-Edowl.li/B6bcx
  • The 2014 Mastering Guide to Audio Formats and Delivery Mediums owl.li/B6aCl
  • Spot the Hidden Movie References in Film 4's Stylish New Idents owl.li/B4MD4
  • The Revolution Has Been Digitized owl.li/B6axI
  • ◉ Bill Gates on Technology and Saving the World owl.li/BbqOF
  • The ABCs of Lossless Music Files owl.li/B3Bac
  • Announcing The Finalists Of The 2014 Innovation By Design Awards owl.li/BeyM7
  • ◉ Recommended:Creativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces That Stand in the Way of True Inspiration -smartercreativity.com/recommendation…
  • What the best education systems are doing right owl.li/B6akW
  • ◉ How Digital Is Saving Vinyl Records and Pinball Machines -smartercreativity.com/blog/2014/9/7/…
  • Why Your Library May Soon Have Laser Cutters and 3-D Printers owl.li/B3imB
  • Case Solved on Jack the Ripper? Not So Fastowl.li/BeHE5
  • A History of Apple's Product Launch Marketingowl.li/BewpO
  • Music Lessons Enhance Brain Function in Disadvantaged Kids owl.li/B4MOZ
  • Think Tank to Ponder a Future for Ballet. New Center at N.Y.U. Focuses on Dance and the Arts - NYTimes.com owl.li/B6biW
  • Twitter Makes Its Buy Button Official. Will a Donate Button soon follow? owl.li/BenAj
  • RSC to put on forgotten play by Shakespeare contemporary John Ford owl.li/B4MHy
  • Amazing: ‘Impossible’ Triple Star System Is a Mystery Astronomers Can't Explain — NOVA Next | PBS owl.li/B3hQ4
  • A Photographic Tour Of A Country That Doesn't Like Cameras owl.li/B3f9G
  • What can the Western education system learn from the developing world? owl.li/B2Hid
  • A Lost Chapter From Roald Dahl’s "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" Was Just Releasedowl.li/B3f4D
  • Apple updates App Store review guidelines, calls out creepy apps, slides towards HIPAAowl.li/B2vQ2
  • Can an Idea Be Dangerous? An Australian festival aims to shock and provoke its audience. owl.li/B3ejq
  • So Bill Gates Has This Idea for a History Class...- NYT Magazine Education Issueowl.li/Bc7n8
  • Ikea Hilariously Pitches Its 2015 Catalog as the Coolest Gadget Ever owl.li/B2vgu
  • Two Cities With Blazing Internet Speed Search for a Killer App - NYTimes.com owl.li/Bc6QX
  • For The First Time, Real Tattoos Make Their Madden Debut, and tattoo artists are trying to protect their copyright owl.li/B3dIG
  • Weird Facts About 5 of the World’s Most Famous Logos owl.li/B3i2W
  • National Milkshake Month: 16 Offbeat Holidays You Can Celebrate in September owl.li/B3376
  • Legacy Media: The Lost Decade In Six Chartsowl.li/B0zWx
  • Typography Made Of Everything But Ordinary Ink owl.li/B0zEw
  • How Google can really help news & mediaowl.li/AXGrx
  • Yves Klein: The man who created a hue that had never existed before owl.li/AYwTt
  • Chinese Cinemas Let Viewers Stream Live Comments to Screens owl.li/AXcRp
  • The War for Our Digital Future: Virtual Reality vs. Integral Reality | Innovation Insightsowl.li/AYwHy
  • 60 of History’s Strangest Royal Epithetsowl.li/AXcPk
  • Reddit Now Has an Official 'AMA' Appowl.li/AYvqk
  • What can we learn from 800,000 public comments on the FCC's net neutrality plan?owl.li/B0zZZ
  • Inside a video game voiceover studioowl.li/AXGtG
  • From Moscow to Mumbai, These Agencies Made Award-Winning Campaigns Like Epic Split and Dumb Ways to Die owl.li/AWWxN
  • For Some, ’Tis a Gift to Be Simple -NYTimes.com owl.li/AWWrt
  • The Three Qualities of People I Most Enjoy Working With owl.li/AWwxe
  • Curiosity Is as Important as Intelligenceowl.li/AWW9q
  • ◉ Other-initiated Repair: The Syllable Everyone Recognizes owl.li/AWxT7
  • The Secret to Making People Want What You Got — Psychology of Stuff owl.li/AWuhn
  • ◉ Recommended: The War of Artowl.li/AWySC
  • Former New York Times Editor Jill Abramson on the Paper’s Future owl.li/B8N9q

Who Made The Cocktail Shaker?

Jens Mortensen for The New York Times

Jens Mortensen for The New York Times

Melanie Rehak in The New York Times on the innovation of the cocktail shaker: 

Throughout the 1870s, inventors sought to improve on the basic design. One featured a plunger system for mixing six tumblers at once; another had air vents. But none of these took. Then in 1884, Edward Hauck of Brooklyn patented the three-part metal shaker with a built-in strainer and a little top — a configuration that has remained essentially unchanged to this day. It came to be known as the cobbler shaker (the sherry cobbler, made of sherry, sugar, ice and orange or lemon, was among the most popular cocktails of the era). When stainless steel was invented in the early 20th century, it quickly became the shaker material of choice, an honor it continues to enjoy.

Creativity Creep

Joshua Rothman wrote about creativity in The New Yorker, and how we confuse “the production of things with the living of a creative life.”: 

How did we come to care so much about creativity? The language surrounding it, of unleashing, unlocking, awakening, developing, flowing, and so on, makes it sound like an organic and primordial part of ourselves which we must set free—something with which it’s natural to be preoccupied. But it wasn’t always so; people didn’t always care so much about, or even think in terms of, creativity. In the ancient world, good ideas were thought to come from the gods, or, at any rate, from outside of the self. During the Enlightenment, rationality was the guiding principle, and philosophers sought out procedures for thinking, such as the scientific method, that might result in new knowledge. People back then talked about “imagination,” but their idea of it was less exalted than ours. They saw imagination as a kind of mental scratch pad: a system for calling facts and images to the mind’s eye and for comparing and making connections between them. They didn’t think of the imagination as “creative.” In fact, they saw it as a poor substitute for reality; Hobbes called it “decayed sense.”